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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2022
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-44

Online since Monday, January 17, 2022

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EDITORIALS  

Variants of concern: A real cause of worry? p. 1
AR Paramez
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_25_21  
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Epidemiology and risk factors for allergic rhinitis p. 2
PA Mahesh
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_24_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic respiratory diseases p. 5
Ravindran Chetambath
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_9_21  
Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a well-established treatment modality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is intended to improve exercise tolerance and activity-related dyspnea. PR also improves health-related quality of life. There is increasing evidence for similar effects of PR in people with other chronic respiratory diseases such as interstitial lung diseases and bronchiectasis. This review discusses the evidence for PR in chronic respiratory diseases, outlines the essential components of PR in this population, and highlights special considerations for exercise training in people with different diseases. Possible future directions for PR research are explored.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students in the age group of 16-20 years in a South Indian City p. 13
Irfan A Sheik, Vishnu Sharma Moleyar
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_8_21  
Introduction: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is often viewed as a trivial disease but it can significantly affect the quality of life by causing fatigue, headache, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment. According to World Health Organization (WHO) report (2007), the global burden of allergic rhinitis was estimated to be 400 million, and the prevalence among adults ranges between 10% and 32% in the Asia Pacific region. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and other allergic diseases has increased globally in the last three decades. Despite the high burden, there is a paucity of community-based studies in India, determining the burden of allergic rhinitis. Hence we undertook this study to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students (16-20 Years) of age. Materials and Methods: Students of age group 16-20 years of age, both Girls and boys in and around Mangaluru city, Dakshina Kannada district were included in the study. This was a questionnaire based cross sectional study. A standardized questionnaire (adopted from ISAAC) was prepared and was administered to students of 12 different colleges. The sample size was calculated after carefully analyzing previous Indian studies on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. Considering an 8% prevalence rate and a 10% allowable error, sample size was estimated as N= 4600. Purposive sampling, among students of various colleges in Mangaluru city was done. The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was done clinically as per ARIA guidelines. Students were interviewed in their class room for one hour. First the study objectives and the questionnaire was explained to the students. Then each student was given the questionnaire to fill. Informed consent was taken from each student. The statistical analysis was performed by Frequency and percentage method to calculate the prevalence. Chi-square test, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to measure the association between the variables, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: In our study group, the age distribution was from 16-20 years. 961(20.8%) students were 16 years of age, 1196(26.0%) students were 17 years of age, 905(19.7) were 18years of age, 697(15.2%) 19 years of age & 841(18.3%) students were 20 years of age. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students (16-20) years of age was 11.9%. The prevalence was higher among girls (12.0%) compared to boys (11.7%). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was more among students of 20 years of age. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was more in girls (12.0%) compared to boys (11.7%). Smokers were found to be 2.6 times more prone to develop eczema. Statistically significant correlation between bronchial asthma with allergic rhinitis and eczema was found. Incidence of allergic rhinitis among asthma patients was 5.7times more compared to normal subjects. A significant association of asthma was observed with the incidence of eczema. Incidence of asthma among the people who have a family history of asthma was 7.08 times more compared to other population. Incidence of allergic rhinitis among the people who had a family history of asthma was 2.63 times compared to other population. Incidence of eczema among the people who have a family history of asthma is 11 times compared to other population. Conclusions: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students (16-20) years of age was 11.9%. The prevalence was slightly higher among girls (12.0%) compared to boys (11.7%).
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BRIEF REPORT Top

When COVID rules…. Severe acute respiratory illness due to another virus p. 22
Rayees Kathim, G Gangaprasad, Anoop Kumar, Ravindran Chetambath
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_18_21  
This is a case of a 49-year-old male alcoholic who developed severe breathlessness, desaturation, and loss of consciousness following an alcoholic bout. Due to the ongoing COVID pandemic, he was suspected to be having COVID-19 infection. His clinical and radiological presentations were atypical for COVID-19. On investigations, it was found to be due to another rare viral pneumonia. The case is being reported due to its rarity.
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EXPERT VIEW Top

Unusual fungal infection in an immunocompetent host p. 26
Praveen Kumar, V Nandini, MC Sabir, Ravindran Chetambath
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_23_21  
Cryptococcus is a fungus that causes infections most commonly in immunocompromised patients. However, approximately one-third of cases of cryptococcosis are seen in patients who have no readily identifiable immune defects. Pulmonary cryptococcosis often manifests as isolated or multiple nodules, easily mimicking lung cancer clinically and radiologically. This case report highlights the tumor-like presentation of cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient.
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IMAGE WINDOW Top

Rare tracheobronchial anomalies and their clinical significance p. 32
Charitha Puvvada, Mohammed Nazim, Manish Murali, Ravindran Chetambath
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_15_21  
Tracheobronchial anomalies are often congenital and do not cause much symptoms to the individual. Majority of them are branching anomalies. Most of them are incidentally detected during bronchoscopy for unrelated diseases. However, rarely abnormal bronchi may present with symptoms. He we present two rare bronchial anomalies presenting with clinical symptoms attributed to them.
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POSTGRADUATE FORUMS Top

Young lady with respiratory failure p. 35
Nithya Haridas, Asmita Mehta, Akhilesh Kunoor, Richie George
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_19_21  
Respiratory failure in a young adult presenting with community-acquired pneumonia usually suggests a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we discuss the case of a young female with pneumonia whose respiratory failure persisted despite treatment of pneumonia and ARDS.
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Nonexpanding pneumothorax despite double intercostal drainage tubes p. 39
Anand Vijay, Aparna S Nirmal, Melcy Cleetus, Jolsana Augustine, Rajesh Venkitakrishnan, Divya Ramachandran
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_13_21  
Pneumothorax is one of the most common emergencies encountered in day-to-day pulmonary practice. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention will reduce morbidity as well as mortality. The mainstay of treatment involves tube thoracostomy and drainage of pneumothorax in all except the mild cases. Proper technique and ascertaining correct tube position with follow-up imaging ensure successful lung expansion. We share the case of a gentleman who presented with nonexpansion of lung despite inserting 2 intercostal drainage tubes for the management of pneumothorax. Imaging with computed tomography thorax revealed both tubes to be coiled within the chest wall without entry into pleural space, thereby accounting for failed reexpansion. This case stresses the importance of following a structured evaluation in cases of nonexpanding lung after tube thoracostomy for pneumothorax.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Coronavirus disease 2019 and atrial fibrillation: A dreadful yet not uncommon association p. 43
Mansi Gupta, Nitesh Gupta, AJ Mahendran, Pranav Ish
DOI:10.4103/jalh.jalh_21_21  
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