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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-21

Prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students in the age group of 16-20 years in a South Indian City


Department of Respiratory Medicine, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vishnu Sharma Moleyar
Department of Respiratory Medicine, AJ Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Kuntikana, Mangalore, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jalh.jalh_8_21

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Introduction: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is often viewed as a trivial disease but it can significantly affect the quality of life by causing fatigue, headache, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment. According to World Health Organization (WHO) report (2007), the global burden of allergic rhinitis was estimated to be 400 million, and the prevalence among adults ranges between 10% and 32% in the Asia Pacific region. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and other allergic diseases has increased globally in the last three decades. Despite the high burden, there is a paucity of community-based studies in India, determining the burden of allergic rhinitis. Hence we undertook this study to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students (16-20 Years) of age. Materials and Methods: Students of age group 16-20 years of age, both Girls and boys in and around Mangaluru city, Dakshina Kannada district were included in the study. This was a questionnaire based cross sectional study. A standardized questionnaire (adopted from ISAAC) was prepared and was administered to students of 12 different colleges. The sample size was calculated after carefully analyzing previous Indian studies on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. Considering an 8% prevalence rate and a 10% allowable error, sample size was estimated as N= 4600. Purposive sampling, among students of various colleges in Mangaluru city was done. The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was done clinically as per ARIA guidelines. Students were interviewed in their class room for one hour. First the study objectives and the questionnaire was explained to the students. Then each student was given the questionnaire to fill. Informed consent was taken from each student. The statistical analysis was performed by Frequency and percentage method to calculate the prevalence. Chi-square test, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to measure the association between the variables, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: In our study group, the age distribution was from 16-20 years. 961(20.8%) students were 16 years of age, 1196(26.0%) students were 17 years of age, 905(19.7) were 18years of age, 697(15.2%) 19 years of age & 841(18.3%) students were 20 years of age. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students (16-20) years of age was 11.9%. The prevalence was higher among girls (12.0%) compared to boys (11.7%). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was more among students of 20 years of age. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was more in girls (12.0%) compared to boys (11.7%). Smokers were found to be 2.6 times more prone to develop eczema. Statistically significant correlation between bronchial asthma with allergic rhinitis and eczema was found. Incidence of allergic rhinitis among asthma patients was 5.7times more compared to normal subjects. A significant association of asthma was observed with the incidence of eczema. Incidence of asthma among the people who have a family history of asthma was 7.08 times more compared to other population. Incidence of allergic rhinitis among the people who had a family history of asthma was 2.63 times compared to other population. Incidence of eczema among the people who have a family history of asthma is 11 times compared to other population. Conclusions: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis among students (16-20) years of age was 11.9%. The prevalence was slightly higher among girls (12.0%) compared to boys (11.7%).


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